Senin, 20 Juni 2011

NASA's Reveals Black Holes In The Universe in early

Using the deepest X-ray ever taken, the researchers found the first direct evidence that blacks massive holes were common in the early universe. This discovery from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory show that the smaller holes blacks have grown more aggressively than previously thought, with the growth of the host galaxies.

Chandra pointing to a corner of the sky for more than six weeks, astronomers have obtained what is known as the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS). When combined with deep optical imaging and infrared Hubble Space Telescope, the new Chandra data enabled the astronomers to search for black holes in distant galaxies 200, when the universe was about 800 to 950 million years.

"Until now we had no idea that blacks holes in these early galaxies were doing, or if they still exist," said Ezequiel Treister of the University of Hawaii, author of the study, occurring June 16 issue of Nature. "Now we know that there are, and grow like gangbusters."

Ultra-high growth means that black holes in the CDFS are less extreme versions of quasars - very bright, rare objects powered by material falling into supermassive black holes. But sources in the CDFS is about one hundred times lower, and black holes are about a thousand times less massive than those in quasars.

Observations found that between 30 and 100 percent of distant galaxies contain more of supermassive black holes. Extrapolate these results from the small field of view to the sky, there are at least 30 million of supermassive black holes at the beginning of the universe. This is a factor of 10,000 larger than the estimated number of quasars in the early universe.

"We seem to have found a whole new culture of holes black baby," says co-author Kevin Schawinski Yale University. "We believe that these children will grow by a factor of about a hundred or a thousand, eventually become like giant black holes we see today almost 13 billion years after. "

A population of young black holes in the early universe had been predicted but not yet observed. Detailed calculations show that the total growth of black holes observed by this team is about one hundred times higher than recent estimates.

Because these are almost all black holes surrounded by thick clouds of gas and dust optical telescopes often can not detect them. However, the high-energy X-rays of light penetrate these veils and black holes on the inside to be examined.

Physicists who study black holes want to know more about how the first supermassive black hole formed and how they grow. Although the evidence a parallel growth of black holes and galaxies has been established to bring together the distances, the new Chandra results show that the connection is initiated earlier than planned, perhaps from the start of two.

"Most astronomers believe the universe today are black holes and galaxies as a kind of symbiosis in the way they grow," says Priya Natarajan, co-author of Yale University. "We have shown codependent relationship that has existed since ancient times. "

See an animation of a black hole hidden:

Watch the video of the Chandra Deep Field South:

It was suggested that the first black hole play an important role in cleaning up the cosmic "fog" of neutral or uncharged, hydrogen permeating the universe at the beginning, when the temperature cooled after the Big Bang. However, the study shows that the dust covers Chandra and ultraviolet radiation generated by the gas stop black hole to travel abroad to make this re-ionization. "Therefore, the stars and do not push the black hole is likely to the fog has cleared the cosmic dawn.

Chandra is capable of detecting very small objects at great distances, but these black holes are so obscured that photons may escape relatively low and therefore could not be identified individually. Instead, the team used a technique based on the ability of Chandra to determine the direction from the x-rays add up all the heads of X-rays near the position of distant galaxies and find a statistically significant signal.

NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., a program run by the Mission Director of the Office Chandra Science in Washington. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory controls Chandra science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

More information, including images and other multimedia files can be found at:

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